Born in Wadowice, Poland, Karol Jozef Wojtyla had lost his
mother, father and older brother before his 21st birthday. Karol’s promising academic career at
Krakow’s Jagiellonian University was cut short by the outbreak of World War II. While working in a
quarry and a chemical factory, he enrolled in an “underground” seminary in Kraków. Ordained in 1946,
he was immediately sent to Rome where he earned a doctorate in theology.
Back in Poland, a short
assignment as assistant pastor in a rural parish preceded his very fruitful chaplaincy for
university students. Soon he earned a doctorate in philosophy and began teaching that subject at
Poland’s University of Lublin.
Communist officials allowed him to be appointed auxiliary bishop of Krakow in
1958, considering him a relatively harmless intellectual. They could not have been more
He attended all four sessions of Vatican II and contributed especially to itsPastoral
Constitution on the Church in the Modern World. Appointed as archbishop of Krakow in 1964, he
was named a cardinal three years later.
Elected pope in October 1978, he took the name of his short-lived, immediate
predecessor. Pope John Paul II was the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. In time, he made
pastoral visits to 124 countries, including several with small Christian
He promoted ecumenical and interfaith initiatives, especially the 1986 Day of Prayer for World
Peace in Assisi. He visited Rome’s Main Synagogue and the Western Wall in Jerusalem; he also
established diplomatic relations between the Holy See and Israel. He improved Catholic-Muslim
relations and in 2001 visited a mosque in Damascus, Syria.
The Great Jubilee of the Year 2000, a key event in John
Paul’s ministry, was marked by special celebrations in Rome and elsewhere for Catholics and other
Christians. Relations with the Orthodox Churches improved considerably during his ministry as
“Christ is the center of the universe and of human history” was the opening line of his 1979
encyclical, Redeemer of the Human Race. In 1995, he described himself to the United
Nations General Assembly as “a witness to hope.”
His 1979 visit to Poland encouraged the growth of the
Solidarity movement there and the collapse of communism in central and eastern Europe 10 years
later. He began World Youth Day and traveled to several countries for those celebrations. He very
much wanted to visit China and the Soviet Union but the governments in those countries prevented
One of the most well-remembered photos of his pontificate was his one-on-one conversation in
1983 with Mehmet Ali Agca, who had attempted to assassinate him two years
In his 27 years of papal ministry, John Paul wrote 14 encyclicals and five books, canonized
482 saints and beatified 1,338 people.
In the last years of his life, he suffered from Parkinson’s disease and was
forced to cut back on some of his activities.
Pope Benedict XVI beatified John Paul II on May 1, 2011,
Divine Mercy Sunday.