Karol J. Wojtyla, known as John Paul II since his October 1978
election to the papacy, was born in Wadowice, a small city 50 kilometres from Cracow, on May 18,
1920. He was the second of two sons born to Karol Wojtyla and Emilia Kaczorowska. His mother died in
1929. His eldest brother Edmund, a doctor, died in 1932 and his father, a non-commissioned army
officer died in 1941.
He made his First Holy Communion at age 9 and was confirmed at 18. Upon
graduation from Marcin Wadowita high school in Wadowice, he enrolled in Cracow´s Jagiellonian
University in 1938 and in a school for drama.
The Nazi occupation forces closed the
university in 1939 and young Karol had to work in a quarry (1940-1944) and then in the Solvay
chemical factory to earn his living and to avoid being deported to Germany.
In 1942, aware of
his call to the priesthood, he began courses in the clandestine seminary of Cracow, run by Cardinal
Adam Stefan Sapieha, archbishop of Cracow. At the same time, Karol Wojtyla was one of the pioneers
of the "Rhapsodic Theatre," also clandestine.
After the Second World War, he continued his
studies in the major seminary of Cracow, once it had re-opened, and in the faculty of theology of
the Jagiellonian University, until his priestly ordination in Cracow on November 1,
Soon after, Cardinal Sapieha sent him to Rome where he worked under the guidance of the
French Dominican, Garrigou-Lagrange. He finished his doctorate in theology in 1948 with a thesis on
the topic of faith in the works of St. John of the Cross. At that time, during his vacations, he
exercised his pastoral ministry among the Polish immigrants of France, Belgium and
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