cuanto dura el sangrado con el cytotec cymbalta ilac buy furosemide 40 mg uk taking mirtazapine 15mg how can i taper to discontinue ciprofloxacin price in chennai ginkgo biloba escitalopram misoprostol en buenos aires glucophage yan ventolin spray prospect paxil and cataracts can moringa cure side effects of doxycycline wellbutrin xl and sertraline hcl 50 mg clomid and twins nitroglycerin 6.4 cardizem vs norvasc warfarin 5 mg tab neurontin high white blood count clomiphene when to take it lisinopril 10mg effects on other organs maxalt max 6 recreation cialis doxycycline adoxa gluten free how much does a prescription for cialis cost in ontario pirex sildenafil 100mg can erythromycin opthalmic be used on skin atenolol effective dose aciclovir hexal raskaus can you take evening primrose oil after taking clomid do people take neurontin to get high how often can you take prednisone for sinus infection kamagra oral jelly wroclaw does metronidazole make your urine dark phenergan nurofen wellbutrin xl 150 mg testimonies can you get high off prazosin cialis generic dosing how long to use prednisone discount on zyprexa taking 10 mg cialis make dick explode best flavoring for augmentin is flomax an ace inhibitor khasiat obat clozaril 25mg does 20mgs of nadalol equal 20mg of propranolol are those generic cialis real cataract surgery and coumadin propecia 7 months results 150 mg seroquel augmentation seroquel dangerous dose does medco cover for viagra lamictal seroquel bipolar spierx brand sildenafil citrate misoprostol es legal en argentina stromectol review pinworms famvir 1500 doxycycline og alkohol how long for seroquel to work for anxiety augmentin duo 625 for chest congestion en cuantas horas hace efecto cytotec via oral valacyclovir hcl to treat shingles cymbalta effect on sleep does doxycycline hyclate contain aspirin tadalafil from china generic clomid vs name brand how long are cipro pills good for side effect of celecoxib viagra for medical use erythromycin for acne yahoo how much gabapentin for opiate withdrawal anafranil e agitazione should i stop taking viagra before surgery bactrim ds for back conjunctivitis paxil approved by fda what do gabapentin pills look like can i take lexapro with hcg definition of cephalexin rogaine vs. nioxin vs propecia spironolactone and cod liver oil lisinopril mercury drug store philippines prednisone early menstrual cycle ciprofloxacin advice pediatric lasix dose propecia online shopping bactrim 480 mg posologie combination therapy with avodart and tamsulosin strattera take with food wellbutrin 400 mg efectos secundarios zoloft beli online misoprostol clomid 50mg tablets uk vardenafil hydrochloride cost sertraline farmoz topamax impulse control ampicillin vetpharm can prednisone affect your hair cialis and eyesight viagra wyglad tabletki generic mobic drug himax better than viagra how long after taking thyroxine can i eat generic cialis in canada viagra paiement par paypal ipertensione aldactone i take lisinopril 10 mg can i use viagra retiro del mercado de isoptin retard 240 albuterol 042 effectiveness where to buy tamoxifen for pct australia acid reflux metronizadol antibiotics ciprofloxacin dosage 1000 mg for gonorrhea buy furosemide in uk augmentin duo forte stomach cramps which is better for anxiety zoloft or paxil allopurinol geneesmiddel can ondansetron hcl 8mg get you high can you drink berr when using terbinafine 250 do i take all 6 prednisone tablets at once gabapentin thc withdrawal does cialis really work for normal male chances of getting pregnant clomid 100mg iui can i take bentyl with phenergan pamelor overdose symptoms prednisone dosage amitriptyline 100 mg weight gain side effects of amoxicillin in animals propranolol inderal la 40 mg how long after synthroid can take clariton can i drink while taking zoloft can mobic cause high cholesterol is seroquel a scheduled drug use of 40mg twice daily of inderal can it cause ed is gabapentin used for bipolar disorder amlodipine epocrates amoxicillin tri binh gi nizoral for male yeast infection valtrex herpes encephalitis taking an extra wellbutrin treating djd with gabapentin naproxen 275 mg 1 mg of propecia up dose why does wellbutrin cost so much piroxicam 93 757 fluconazole 150 mg price uk where to buy colchicine in malaysia tive infarto posso tomar viagra tab norvasc 5mg price in pakistan nexium patent expiration wiki cialis discount online manfaat etamox 500mg amoxicillin can levofloxacin cure an abscessed tooth metronidazole change color of urine rapaflo and flomax rapidity of action furosemide for horses diabetes metformin side effects short menstrual cycle on clomid gabapentin thrush viagra precio sanborns kamagra tablets price in mumbai is flagyl penicillin coumadin and muscle relaxers buy gabapentin online cod kesan ubat dostinex zyban sales dermatitis seborreica nizoral cream available doxycycline drug in the philippines voltaren gel price in canada how many mg of amoxicillin for my dog taking plavix with carvedilol pixel warfarin how long does it take for xenical to kick in celexa 40 mg side effects 6dpo symptoms and took 50mg of clomid mifepristone and misoprostol drug interactions lasix iv to po erectile dysfuction non prescription subsatutes singulair thuoc montelukast sodiumsd 4 mg green viagra wikipedia can you get high off of flomax safety of norvasc 10 mg bid clomid need prescription augmentin 1000 mg in treatment of typhoid side effects of the drug amitriptyline prednisone taste horrible buy levitra in nyc can ciprofloxacin tinidazole treat for gonorrhea price for cialis 20mg hong kong difference entre augmentin sr et xr ambien wellbutrin taken together what is the prednisone taper or dosage for poison ivy metronidazole typhoid can metoprolol digoxin or norvasc meds cause diahhrea how long to lose weight on thyroxine bactrim in fish tengo 6 semanas de embarazo puedo usar cytotec can i take cipro and septra at same time does long term use of avapro hct reduce kidney function iv to po conversion metoprolol citalopram hydrobromide 20 mg recreational over the counter viagra bangalore obat tablet metformin am i to ovulate 18days after taking last pill on clomid erectile dysfunction vitamins cheap viagra usa can ringworm be resistant to ketoconazole trazodone hydrochloride snort allopurinol trial augmentin oral suspension reconstitution side effects of nortriptyline 10mg buy orlistat 120mg online uk is lasix used for weight loss estou tomando xenical feldanax piroxicam does amoxicillin need to be prescribed how much does kaiser charge for cialis abilify depot patent amoxicillin na angine generic estradiol patch seroquel dosage tablets hydrochlorothiazide and mdma interactions purchase acyclovir can two 25mg topamax kill you cipro clima marzo can amoxicillin cause lower abdominal pain jual cytotec online diltiazem iv extravasation treatment estradiol side effects spotting dose of prednisone for lupus flare propecia cost per month mifepristone and misoprostol buy online no prescription what dosage of prozac can kill you generic singulair costco allegra suspension y benadryl can prednisone make you itch metronidazole 50mg dogs is famvir a steroid hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg apa kasiatnya lasix 40 mg 12 tablet voltaren 25mg side effects dosis amoxilin pnumonia how do you write prescription for prednisone taper topamax increase metabolism order viagra online clinic uk pastillas priligy en tijuana india phenergan syrup 100ml is it safe for 2 month baby prednisone effects in kids lamisil tabletki skutki uboczne how to lessen the side effects of accutane buy celexa online tegretol celexa interaction citrato de tamoxifeno pdf bactrim medication acne inject wellbutrin sr nexium and milk sunshine contraindicated with prednisone is wellbutrin safe while pregnant metoprolol tartrate discount tetracycline capsules bp using nortriptyline for panic attack meloxicam thuoc gi 15mg albuterol sulfate dosage for 5 year old cialis online bc do i take one diflucan pill to get rid of yeast misoprostol sabor precio xenical en farmacia ahumada does zofran contain sulfur difference plavix sintrom nolvadex tablets astrazenca uk lomited beoordelingen metformin and omega difference between cialis soft gel and hard how much lexapro is equivalent to 150 mg zoloft can you take iron tablets with sertraline buy accutane prescription buy orlistat 120 mg no prescription what does cytotec taste like viagra canada purchase can metronidazole affect levonorgestrel clomipramine in pakistan clomid per amenorrea post pillola topamax myofascial pain obat gatal ketoconazole ketoconazole injection polo size kamagra can nizoral be used 2 treat staphyloccocus topiramate wound healing paxil generic brand side effects metformin 500mg tab zyd can i split viagra pills gabapentin levitra zyvox tabs crush can cytotec abort 3 months of gestation how long will lexapro withdrawal symptoms last olanzapine odt 5mg can you drive when taking metformin hydrochloride tablets usp 1000mg how long does lopressor 10 mg iv push last mirtazapine eq stands for insomnia after taking lexapro is strattera safe to take long term can you buy viagra in shops add wellbutrin to luvox pills viagra canada kamagrafast moved my boyfriend took cialis and is having adverse effects propecia singapore where to buy buy finasteride propecia in kerala india buy cheap furosemide online cost for montelukast how to take the misoprostol tablet nizoral for hair loss women what does viagra cost in bangkok cephalexin and atripla escitalopram 251 orlistat reacciones adversas azithromycin for uti can avodart cause blighted ovum miscarriage prednisone taper epocrates doxycycline and the liver side effects of baclofen flecaril cteam does gabapentin help with sleep prednisone and dilated pupils stopping arimidex after 5 years clomid generic 50 mg for infertility side effects 5mg lexapro side effects can i take paxil and suboxone together ciproud glee azithromycin and grapefruit can i take cold medicine with levofloxacin i accidentally took 120 mg cymbalta instead of 60 mg isotretinoina sin efectos secundarios abilify infarmed bula ladies viagra allegra noccioli facebook topiramate 25 mg for migraine glifage xr 500 cloridrato de metformina augmentin wien avodart pronunciation loxeva interact with fluconazole viagra sizes doses how should i take levitra after prostate gland removal can topamax cause vomiting tomar misoprostol sin estar embarazada allegra gorey need prescription viagra doxepin 50 mg patient review how long to feel effects of zyban for bipolar amoxicillin for ear piercing infection im phenergan in labor montelukast sodium 5mg in uae duloxetine 30mg valtrex for eye shingles bupropion xl blood pressure nexium use in dogs sildenafil tablets ranbaxy 300 mg gabapentin withdrawal xenical no weight loss cytotec online malaysia ventolin evohaler 100 micrograms salbutamol sulphate can i take amoxicillin with dicloreum average cost of 100 mg ciprofloxacin when starting celexa can you take ativan too buy propecia online safely sertraline hcl and pregnancy

Saint Robert Bellarmine (I)

September 17
by Catholic Encyclopedia | Source: New Advent
A distinguished Jesuit theologian, writer, and cardinal, born at Montepulciano, 4 October, 1542; died 17 September, 1621. His father was Vincenzo Bellarmino, his mother Cinthia Cervini, sister of Cardinal Marcello Cervini, afterwards Pope Marcellus II. He was brought up at the newly founded Jesuit college in his native town, and entered the Society of Jesus on 20 September, 1560, being admitted to his first vows on the following day. The next three years he spent in studying philosophy at the Roman College, after which he taught the humanities first at Florence, then at Mondovì. In 1567 he began his theology at Padua, but in 1569 was sent to finish it at Louvain, where he could obtain a fuller acquaintance with the prevailing heresies. Having been ordained there, he quickly obtained a reputation both as a professor and a preacher, in the latter capacity drawing to his pulpit both Catholics and Protestants, even from distant parts. In 1576 he was recalled to Italy, and entrusted with the chair of Controversies recently founded at the Roman College. He proved himself equal to the arduous task, and the lectures thus delivered grew into the work "De Controversiis" which, amidst so much else of excellence, forms the chief title to his greatness. This monumental work was the earliest attempt to systematize the various controversies of the time, and made an immense impression throughout Europe, the blow it dealt to Protestantism being so acutely felt in Germany and England that special chairs were founded in order to provide replies to it. Nor has it even yet been superseded as the classical book on its subject-matter, though, as was to be expected, the progress of criticism has impaired the value of some of its historical arguments.

In 1588 Bellarmine was made Spiritual Father to the Roman College, but in 1590 he went with Cardinal Gaetano as theologian to the embassy Sixtus V was then sending into France to protect the interests of the Church amidst the troubles of the civil wars. Whilst he was there news reached him that Sixtus, who had warmly accepted the dedication of his "De Controversiis", was now proposing to put its first volume on the Index. This was because he had discovered that it assigned to the Holy See not a direct but only an indirect power over temporals. Bellarmine, whose loyalty to the Holy See was intense, took this greatly to heart; it was, however, averted by the death of Sixtus, and the new pope, Gregory XIV, even granted to Bellarmine´s work the distinction of a special approbation. Gaetano´s mission now terminating, Bellarmine resumed his work as Spiritual Father, and had the consolation of guiding the last years of St. Aloysius Gonzaga, who died in the Roman College in 1591. Many years later he had the further consolation of successfully promoting the beatification of the saintly youth. Likewise at this time he sat on the final commission for the revision of the Vulgate text. This revision had been desired by the Council of Trent, and subsequent popes had laboured over the task and had almost brought it to completion. But Sixtus V, though unskilled in this branch of criticism, had introduced alterations of his own, all for the worse. He had even gone so far as to have an impression of this vitiated edition printed and partially distributed, together with the proposed Bull enforcing its use. He died, however, before the actual promulgation, and his immediate successors at once proceeded to remove the blunders and call in the defective impression. The difficulty was how to substitute a more correct edition without affixing a stigma to the name of Sixtus, and Bellarmine proposed that the new edition should continue in the name of Sixtus, with a prefatory explanation that, on account of aliqua vitia vel typographorum vel aliorum which had crept in, Sixtus had himself resolved that a new impression should be undertaken.

The suggestion was accepted, and Bellarmine himself wrote the preface, still prefixed to the Clementine edition ever since in use. On the other hand, he has been accused of untruthfulness in stating that Sixtus had resolved on a new impression. But his testimony, as there is no evidence to the contrary, should be accepted as decisive, seeing how conscientious a man he was in the estimation of his contemporaries; and the more so since it cannot be impugned without casting a slur on the character of his fellow-commissioners who accepted his suggestion, and of Clement VIII who with full knowledge of the facts gave his sanction to Bellarmine´s preface being prefixed to the new edition. Besides, Angelo Rocca, the Secretary of the revisory commissions of Sixtus V and the succeeding pontiffs, himself wrote a draft preface for the new edition in which he makes the same statement: (Sixtus) "dum errores ex typographiâ ortos, et mutationes omnes, atque varias hominum opiniones recognoscere cœpit, ut postea de toto negotio deliberare atque Vulgatam editionem, prout debebat, publicare posset, morte præventus quod cœperat perficere non potuit". This draft preface, to which Bellarmine´s was preferred, is still extant, attached to the copy of the Sixtine edition in which the Clementine corrections are marked, and may be seen in the Biblioteca Angelica at Rome.

In 1592 Bellarmine was made Rector of the Roman College, and in 1595 Provincial of Naples. In 1597 Clement VIII recalled him to Rome and made him his own theologian and likewise Examiner of Bishops and Consultor of the Holy Office. Further, in 1599 he made him Cardinal-Priest of the title of Santa Maria in viâ, alleging as his reason for this promotion that "the Church of God had not his equal in learning". He was now appointed, along with the Dominican Cardinal d´Ascoli, an assessor to Cardinal Madruzzi, the President of the Congregation de Auxiliis, which had been instituted shortly before to settle the controversy which had recently arisen between the Thomists and the Molinists concerning the nature of the concord between efficacious grace and human liberty. Bellarmine´s advice was from the first that the doctrinal question should not be decided authoritatively, but left over for further discussion in the schools, the disputants on either side being strictly forbidden to indulge in censures or condemnations of their adversaries. Clement VIII at first inclined to this view, but afterwards changed completely and determined on a doctrinal definition. Bellarmine´s presence then became embarrassing, and he appointed him to the Archbishopric of Capua just then vacant. This is sometimes spoken of as the cardinal´s disgrace, but Clement consecrated him with his own hands--an honour which the popes usually accord as a mark of special regard. The new archbishop departed at once for his see, and during the next three years set a bright example of pastoral zeal in its administration.

In 1605 Clement VIII died, and was succeeded by Leo XI who reigned only twenty-six days, and then by Paul V. In both conclaves, especially that latter, the name of Bellarmine was much before the electors, greatly to his own distress, but his quality as a Jesuit stood against him in the judgment of many of the cardinals. The new pope insisted on keeping him at Rome, and the cardinal, obediently complying, demanded that at least he should be released from an episcopal charge the duties of which he could no longer fulfil. He was now made a member of the Holy Office and of other congregations, and thenceforth was the chief advisor of the Holy See in the theological department of its administration. Of the particular transactions with which his name is most generally associated the following were the most important: The inquiry de Auxiliis, which after all Clement had not seen his way to decide, was now terminated with a settlement on the lines of Bellarmine´s original suggestion. 1606 marked the beginning of the quarrel between the Holy See and the Republic of Venice which, without even consulting the pope, had presumed to abrogate the law of clerical exemption from civil jurisdiction and to withdraw the Church´s right to hold real property. The quarrel led to a war of pamphlets in which the part of the Republic was sustained by John Marsiglio and an apostate monk named Paolo Sarpi, and that of the Holy See by Bellarmine and Baronius. Contemporaneous with the Venetian episode was that of the English Oath of Alliance. In 1606, in addition to the grave disabilities which already weighed them down, the English Catholics were required under pain of prœmunire to take an oath of allegiance craftily worded in such wise that a Catholic in refusing to take it might appear to be disavowing an undoubted civil obligation, whilst if he should take it he would be not merely rejecting but even condemning as "impious and heretical" the doctrine of the deposing power, that is to say, of a power, which, whether rightly or wrongly, the Holy See had claimed and exercised for centuries with the full approval of Christendom, and which even in that age the mass of the theologians of Europe defended. The Holy See having forbidden Catholics to take this oath, King James himself came forward as its defender, in a book entitled "Tripoli nodo triplex cuneus", to which Bellarmine replied in his "Responsio Matthfi Torti". Other treatises followed on either side, and the result of one, written in denial of the deposing power by William Barclay, an English jurist resident in France, was that Bellarmine´s reply to it was branded by the Regalist Parlement of Paris. Thus it came to pass that, for following the via media of the indirect power, he was condemned in 1590 as too much of a Regalist and in 1605 as too much of a Papalist.

Bellarmine did not live to deal with the later and more serious stage of the Galileo case, but in 1615 he took part in its earlier stage. He had always shown great interest in the discoveries of that investigator, and was on terms of friendly correspondence with him. He took up too--as is witnessed by his letter to Galileo´s friend Foscarini--exactly the right attitude towards scientific theories in seeming contradiction with Scripture. If, as was undoubtedly the case then with Galileo´s heliocentric theory, a scientific theory is insufficiently proved, it should be advanced only as an hypothesis; but if, as is the case with this theory now, it is solidly demonstrated, care must be taken to interpret Scripture only in accordance with it. When the Holy Office condemned the heliocentric theory, by an excess in the opposite direction, it became Bellarmine´s official duty to signify the condemnation to Galileo, and receive his submission. Bellarmine lived to see one more conclave, that which elected Gregory XV (February, 1621). His health was now failing, and in the summer of the same year he was permitted to retire to Sant´ Andrea and prepare for the end. His death was most edifying and was a fitting termination to a life which had been no less remarkable for its virtues than for its achievements.

His spirit of prayer, his singular delicacy of conscience and freedom from sin, his spirit of humility and poverty, together with the disinterestedness which he displayed as much under the cardinal´s robes as under the Jesuit´s gown, his lavish charity to the poor, and his devotedness to work, had combined to impress those who knew him intimately with the feeling that he was of the number of the saints. Accordingly, when he died there was a general expectation that his cause would be promptly introduced. And so it was, under Urban VIII in 1627, when he became entitled to the appellation of Venerable. But a technical obstacle, arising out of Urban VIII´s own general legislation in regard to beatifications, required its prorogation at that time. Though it was reintroduced on several occasions (1675, 1714, 1752, and 1832), and though on each occasion the great preponderance of votes was in favour of the beatification, a successful issue came only after many years. This was partly because of the influential character of some of those who recorded adverse votes, Barbarigo, Casante, and Azzolino in 1675, and Passionei in 1752, but still more for reasons of political expediency, Bellarmine´s name being closely associated with a doctrine of papal authority most obnoxious to the Regalist politicians of the French Court. "We have said", wrote Benedict XIV to Cardinal de Tencin, "in confidence to the General of the Jesuits that the delay of the Cause has come not from the petty matters laid to his charge by Cardinal Passionei, but from the sad circumstances of the times" (Études Religieuses, 15 April, 1896).

[Note: St. Robert Bellarmine was canonized by Pope Pius XI in 1930, and declared a Doctor of the Universal Church in 1931. He is the patron saint of catechists.]

To read more about other Saints of the day, CLICK HERE

Click Here to Donate Now!

Join the new media evangelization. Your tax-deductible gift allows to build a culture of life in our nation and throughout the world. Please help us promote the Church's new evangelization by donating to right now. God bless you for your generosity.




Post a Comment
Write a comment on this article

Email required (will not be published)
required Country

Most Popular