December 2

Novena in preparation for the feast of The Immaculate Conception
by The Marian Library/Internation | Source:
Some of the more radical proponents of the Immaculate Conception took a vow to defend it even to the point of shedding their blood.

For example, in 1497 the Sorbonne and the University of Oxford required an oath to uphold the teaching of all those acquiring academic degrees. The professors and students at the university of Granada Spain followed suit in 1617.

It is estimated that in the 17th century over 6,485 treatises were published favoring the ‘immaculist’ position, with a comparable number taking the ‘maculist’ view.

This was the era which also produced the great paintings of Murillo, de Velasquez and others.

On May 15, 1693 Inncocent II extended the feast to the whole church with an Office and Octave.


Everything in you, Mary, is fiat: you are the Immaculate One, through you shines the fullness of grace.

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